Wood
The idea that a wooden boat has a higher maintenance requirement is no longer true. While rot, peeling paint, and worm damage once gave a small degree of credence to this argument, materials such as epoxy resins, urethane coatings, marine-grade plywood, and hi-tech caulks and glues have long since ended that concern. All boats require maintenance but a properly constructed wooden boat will require no additional effort over an equal boat of alternate construction.
The many natural attributes of wood combined with modern materials offers the best of both worlds. Wood also provides inherent design flexibility which results in hull forms that are light, stable, and strong. This further translates into fuel efficiency for the powered craft and speed for the sailing variety.
In many ways then, the question becomes one of aesthetics and in this area there are few that will deny the unsurpassed, timeless beauty of wood. So why wood... perhaps simply because wood speaks to the heart and satisfies the senses in a way that synthetic materials never will. A wooden boat continues a tradition that spans the centuries and will always be the choice of the nautical connoisseur and those who value the qualities of the natural world.
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Looking After
Of all woods, teak is considered to be the most noble, durable and decadent. Especially luxury yachts use if excessively for decks and decorations. Caring for teak is a different issue – surely, it is a very strong material, but there are a couple of things to keep in mind with teak care. In this article, I try to give to practical advice for proud teak-owners.
Teak is a noble wood; it is expensive and should be treated with consideration. Generally speaking, Teak requires little care compared to other woods. It is hard and durable and for these reasons, has been used in Southeast Asia for centuries. If exposed to the air, untreated teak bleaches to a noble grey or mousy with a shiny surface.
If you are an environmental sailor, like me, you should either avoid teak or check where it comes from and if it was lumbered legally. Teak is a tropical wood and in many Third World countries, native forests are sacrificed to the wood industries. Teak is very evenly patterned and rich in oils. It is the oils that make it unattractive to termites, which is partly the reason for its popularity in Asia.
Like essentially all woods, even teak might need some protection to extend its lifetime. There are several ways of protecting teak, and they all aim for mainly two things: Protection of the oil content in the wood itself on the one hand and sealing off hazards like UV radiation, water and fungi.
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Paint & Oil / Varnish
Apart from crudely painting over the wood (which is commonly done with all sorts of wooden things, because it is cheap and requires little maintenance efforts, but should be avoided with luxury woods like teak), or leaving it untreated, you can protect teak by applying varnish or oil and seals.
If your teak is not oiled, sealed or varnished at all, there is no need to panic: Many boat owners prefer plain teak, even if it might lose its shiny touch after a while. Depending on the local climate in your area, it might well be possible to leave your teak untreated. If in doubt, ask sailors from your area for advice – they should know what products and treatments are best for protecting your wood.
Regardless of what protective layer you decide to get, you should always start with cleaning the wood unless it is newly bought. There are detergents available that are specifically developed for the needs of teak. To wash the wood, use warm water with a mild detergent and a small amount of bleach as an alternative to “special teak detergent”. Apply this solution, let it soak for a bit and rinse it off with clear water.
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Cleaning
If the first treatment did not lead to the desired result, repeat it and increase the concentration of detergent and bleach. Be careful though, teak is sensitive and you should not destroy the surface by chemical means or through rubbing wildly. Use soft brushes or cloth. If you decided to go for “professional” teak detergent, follow the instructions. After rinsing the wood, let it clean in a warm, well-ventilated spot.
Once the wood has dried, you can go for the varnish: It is generally composed of protective waxes, solvents such as alcohol, and other substances with specific effects such as sunscreen-like chemicals that will absorb harmful UV radiation. Especially if you are from a very sunny area and you need varnish for teak on the deck, check for products with highly protective properties with respect to UV.
Do not try to safe money on the varnish! Low-quality varnish might spoil your wood, and it would be a waste of the luxury teak. You should apply several layers of varnish, at least six are generally recommended. Renew at least one layer of varnish once every couple of weeks and before winterizing the boat.
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Teak Care With Oil Versus Lacquer Finishes
A more natural alternative to varnish is oil. There are hundreds of products available, many of them specifically developed for the needs of teak. They replace natural oils in the wood and thereby enhance the look of it and prevent the formation of cracks, fungal growth and the penetration of water.
Wood oils are made of linseed oil and much like varnish, often come with other ingredients such as sun blockers, solvents or water repellents. Some oils tend to darken the wood, so be careful to buy only oils that were developed for teak and outdoor-applications.
Apply oil generously, but avoid drops to sit, as they will leave unattractive stains on the wood. Let the teak dry in a warm and well-ventilated place. Repeat this procedure at least three times and renew the oil once every few weeks during the summer and once before winterizing the yacht.
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Seal Your Boat
To protect oiled wood even more, you can apply sealers as a finish. They generally consist of resins and solvents with the mentioned additives. Don’t seal wood for at least two weeks after the oiling, since “greasy” wood will not hold the sealer. Wash the wood slightly with soap to remove oil from the surface, rinse it and dry it properly.
Then apply the sealer in a thin layer, let it dry and repeat the treatment. Three layers of sealer should be plenty (follow the instructions given for outdoor conditions), and depending on the quality and strength of the sealer, it won’t have to be renewed for weeks or even months.
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Pine
Pine (pinos strobus, pinos resinosa, pinos nigra, pinus palustris) is the most abundant local wood suitable for building gulets. It is widely available along the interior of the Aegean coast and the least expensive material available for builders. Live pine trees can be chosen by the builder and cut down to exact dimensions and specifications. The drawback to using pine is its long life especially under water if it is regulary maintenanced well, there are red, white and black types. With the recent trend towards progressively longer, more luxurious gulets, Bodrum builders began to use alternatives to white pine for increased strength and durability.
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Mahogany
Imported African mahogany, available from Istanbul wholesalers, became a favored material due to its medium weight and resistance to decay. Mahogany is available in many different grades and qualities and good quality mahogany also makes an excellent exterior finish material. The best mahoganies are Khaya ivorensis, Sipo utile, Sapeli aboudikro and Niangon nyankom. (ref) There are also varieties of mahogany not well suited for building gulets, which reinforces the fact that choice of reputable boatyard and suppliers is of paramount importance in the commissioning of a gulet. It is suggested specially for interior and frames.
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Irocco
Perhaps the most durable but also the heaviest and most expensive wood used to build gulets is Iroko. The natural oils found in Iroko prevent water absorption, impede shrinkage, and many feel that it becomes increasingly beautiful with age and use. However, the weight of Iroko can alter the sailing and handling of the vessel and must be factored into the design of the boat. It is suggested for frames. ;
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Mulberry & Oak
Some premium builders prefer the durability of mulberry or oak frames for gulets, but working with these particular woods involves a longer aging process as well as one of the increasingly rare craftsmen (usta) with experience using them. Increasingly builders are using laminated epoxy constructed frames with traditional planking, or epoxy frames with diagonal veneer planking. Again, mahogany is usually the choice of wood.
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